Clinical Papers


Diane Duncan, MD, FACS; and Ivan Dinev, DVM, PhD, DSc, 2019, Noninvasive Induction of Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia: Effects of High-Intensity Focused Electromagnetic Field Evaluated in an In-Vivo Porcine Model: A Pilot Study

Aesthetic Surgery Journal, Volume 40, Issue 5, May 2020, Pages 568–574,

High-intensity focused electromagnetic (HIFEM) field technology has been reported to increase muscle thickness and hypertrophy. However, this process has not yet been confirmed on a histologic level.

The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vivo structural changes in striated porcine muscle tissue following HIFEM treatment.

Muscles have long been neglected in the body-shaping industry, which predominantly deals with subcutaneous fat deposits. However, strong and firm muscles significantly contribute to the overall aesthetic appearance. High-intensity focused electromagnetic (HIFEM) field technology has recently been introduced in the field of aesthetic medicine to provide physicians with a tool for muscle toning and strengthening beyond the capability of normal exercise.

HIFEM technology, on the other hand, does not deliver any heating through electromagnetic radiation, as it utilizes magnetic waves of very low frequencies (3-5 kHz) which propagate through the tissue without being absorbed. In this case, an interaction between the wave and human tissue occurs according to the principles of electromagnetic induction, first described by Michael Faraday in 1831. The law of electromagnetic induction says that any change in a magnetic field induces an electric current and vice versa. The alternations in the electric current induce rapidly changing magnetic waves which propagate into the underlying tissue, where they induce a secondary electric current. These electric currents within the tissue depolarize the muscle-innervating motor neurons and induce muscle contractions.3

Histopathologic quantification showed significant structural muscle changes through a combination of fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Control biopsies showed a lack of similar changes. The data correlate with findings of other HIFEM research and suggest that HIFEM could be used for noninvasive induction of muscle growth.
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